Abnormal glandular functions & Abnormal HPA axis (Hypothalmus Pituary Adrenal axis)

(a) Shrunken adrenal glands and low hormone output

(b) Abnormal HPA axis (Hypothalmus Pituary Adrenal axis)

 

(a) Shrunken adrenal glands and low hormone output.

The result of excessive pressure or strain on the adrenal glands over time.

  • Scott LV, The J, Reznek R, Martin A, Sohaib A, Dinan TG. 1999 Small adrenal glands in chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary computer tomography study. Endocrinology 24:759-768.
  • "There are striking similarities between chronic fatigue syndrome and Addison's disease, which share 26 features, including all of the neuropsychological symptoms"
    Canadian Medical Association Journal
    http://www.cma.ca/cmaj/vol-160/issue-5/0636a.htm
  • Professor Ted Dinan and Dr. Lucinda Scott, St. Batholomew's Hospital, London. Radiology, 1998, 209 (supl) 411-412.

  • De Becker P, Roeykens J, Reynders M, Mc Gregor N, De Meirleir K. Exercise capacity in chronic fatigue syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3270-3277

  • Bell, David S., M.D. The Doctor’s Guide to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 1993 Addison Wesley, pp. 115.

  • Shrunken adrenal glands confirmed by Research at St. James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, in 2001.

  • Demitrack M, et al. Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis in patients with CFS. J Clin Endocrin Metab 1991;73:1224-34.

  • McKenzie R, et al. Low-dose hydrocortisone for treatment of CFS. JAMA1998;280:1061-66.

  • Scott LV, Dinan TG: Urinary free cortisol excretion in chronic fatigue syndrome, major depression and in healthy volunteers. J Affect Disord 1998, 47:49-54.

  • Scott LV, et al. Small adrenal glands in chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary computer tomography study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1999;24:759-68.

  • Teitelbaum, Jacob, M.D., From Fatigued to Fantastic: A Manual for Moving Beyond Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia. 1995 Deva Press, pp.36.

  • The theories of Alfred J Plechner D.V.M. state that low amounts of free adrenal cortisone combined with too much adrenal estrogen and the subsequent binding of thyroid hormones by estrogen from the adrenals can contribute to a wide range of health related problems has support from other experts. The Great Smokies Diagnostic Laboratory (www.gsdl.com) states in their Adrenal Cortex Stress Profile that "Researchers have proposed that CFS is actually a disease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Unlike ordinary fatigue, however, CFS is typically characterized by low free cortisol levels and adrenal insufficiency. Raising cortisol levels by even small amounts has been found to improve unexplained fatigue symptoms in many CFS patients."

  • Demitrack MA et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 73: 1224

  • Demitrack, Mark A., Janet K. Dale, Stephen E. Straus et al.; "Evidence for the Impaired Activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome"; Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, December 1991.

  • NEUROENDOCRINE STUDIES IN CHRONIC FATIGUE SYMPTOMS
    Dr Anthony J Cleare, Senior Lecturer in Psychological Medicine, Guy's King's and St Thomas' school of Medicine, London.

  • Cleare AJ. The neuroendocrinology of chronic fatigue syndrome.Endocr Rev.2003; 24:236–52.25.
  • Jason LA, Sorenson M, Porter N, Belkairous N (2010), "An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Neuroscience & Medicine, 2011, 2, 14-27, PMID: 21892413
  • Cleare AJ, O'Keane V, Miell J. Plasma leptin in chronic fatigue syndrome and a placebo-controlled study of the effects of low dose hydrocortisone on leptin secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).2001; 55:113–9
  • McKenzie R, O'Fallon A, Dale J, et al. Low-dose hydrocortisone for treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome : a randomized controlled trial. JAMA.1998;280:1061–6
  • Cleare AJ, Heap E, Malhi G S, et al. Low-dose hydrocortisone in chronic fatigue syndrome : a randomised cross over trial.Lancet.1999;353:455–8

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(b) Abnormal HPA axis (Hypothalmus Pituary Adrenal axis)

  • Evidence for impaired activation of hypothalmic-pituary axis in patients with CFS. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1991, 73, 1224-1234. MA. Demitrack.
  • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome. Andrew S. Papadopoulos & Anthony J. Cleare. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 8, 22-32 (January 2012)
  • M. Demitrack and L. Crofford, "Evidence For and Pathophysiologic Implications of Hypothalamic-Pituitary -Adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 840, 1998, pp. 684-697.
  • Possible upregulation of hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in patients with postviral fatigue syndrome. Bakheit, AMO., Behan, PO., Dinan, TG., Gray, CE and O'Keane, VO.; British Medical Journal, 1992, 304, 1010-2.
  • L. V. Scott, S. Medbak and T. G. Dinan, "Blunted Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Responses to Corticotropin- Releasing Hormone Stimulation in Chronic Fatigue
    Syndrome," Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 97, 1998, pp. 450-457.
  • Adler GK, Manfredsdottir VF, Rackow RM. 2002 Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue sydrome. The Endocrinologist 12:513-524.

  • Holtorf K. Diagnosis and treatment of hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue syndro me (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). J Chronic Fatigue Syndr ( 2008 ) 14 : 59 - 88.
  • Indication of endocrine abnormality induced by dysfunction of 5-HT system in CFS. 5-HT transporter gene polyphormism in CFS patients. Dysfunction in 5-HT system in the animal models. Reduced binding potential of 5-HTT in CFS patients.
    Neuroscience of Fatigue and CFS/ME by Using PET Molecular Imaging and Functional Neuroimaging
    - Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Masaski Tanaka, Kei Mizuno, Akira Ishii, Emi Yamano, Sanae Fukuda, Yasuhito Nakatomi, Kouzi Yamaguti, and Hirohiko Kuratsune. IACFS/ME Conference. Translating Science into Clinical Care. March 20-23, 2014 • San Francisco, California, USA
    - Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and chronic fatigue syndrome Masaaki Narita, Naoko Nishigami, Naoko Narita, Kouzi Yamaguti, Nobuo Okado, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Hirohiko Kuratsune. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Volume 311, Issue 2, 14 November 2003, Pages 264–266
  • Scott LV, Dinan TG: Urinary free cortisol excretion in chronic fatigue syndrome, major depression and in healthy volunteers. J Affect Disord 1998, 47:49-54.
  • Ottenweller JE, Sisto SA, McCarty RC, Natelson BH. 2001 Hormonal responses to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology 43:34-41.
  • Clinical spectrum of postviral fatigue syndrome. Behan, PO and Bakheit, AMO; British Medical Bulletin, 1991, 47, 4, 793-808.

  • Torpy DJ. 2001 Neuroendocrinology, genetics and chronic fatigue syndrome. CFS Res Rev 2(4):1-3.

  • Neeck G, Crofford LJ. 2000 Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 26:989-1002.

  • Dechene L . Chronic fatigue syndrome: influence of histamine, hormones and electrolytes. Med Hypotheses. 1993 Jan;40(1):55-60. PMID: 8455468
  • Contrasting neuroendocrine responses in depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. Cleare, AJ., Bearn, J., Allain, T., McGregor, A., Wessely, S., Murray, RM and O'Keane, V.; Journal of Affective Disorders, 1995, 35, 283-289
  • Englebienne P , Verhas M , Herst CV , De Meirleir K . Type I interferons induce proteins susceptible to act as thyroid receptor (TR) corepressors and to signal the TR for destruction by the proteasome: possible etiology for unexplained chronic fatigue. Med Hypotheses. 2003 Feb;60(2):175-80. PMID: 12606231
  • Kurup RK, Kurup PA. 2003 Hypothalamic digoxin, cerebral chemical dominance and myalgic encephalomyelitis. Int J Neurosci 113:445-457.
  • Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Demitrack, MA, Dale, JK, Straus, SE., Laue, L., Listwalk, SJ., Kruesi, MJP., Chrousos, GP and Gold, PW.; Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1991, 73, 1224-1234.
  • Defective dexamethasone induced growth hormone release in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence for glucocorticoid receptor resistance and lack of plasticity? Majeed, T., Dinan, TG., Thakore, J., Gray, C and Behan, PO.; Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, 1995, 24, 1, 20-24.

  • Papadopoulos AS, Cleare AJ. Hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome. Nat Rev Endocrinol ( 2011 ) 8 : 22 - 32. doi: 10.1038/ nrendo.2011.153.
  • Torres - Harding S, Sorenson M, Jason L, Maher K, Fletcher MA, Reynolds N, et al. The associations between basal salivary cortisol and illness symptomatology in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Appl Biobehav Res ( 2008 ) 13 : 157 - 180.
  • MacHale SM, Cavanagh JT, Bennie J, Carroll S, Goodwin GM, Lawrie SM. Diurnal variation of adrenocortical activity in chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology ( 1998 ) 38 : 213 - 217. doi: 10.1159/000026543.
  • Jammes Y, Steinberg JG, Delliaux S, Brégeon F. Chronic fatigue syndrome combines increased exercise - induced oxidative stress and reduced cytokine and Hsp responses. J Intern Med ( 2009 ) 266 : 196 - 206. doi: 10.1111/j.1365 - 2796.2009.02079.x.
  • Kavelaars A , Kuis W , Knook L , Sinnema G , Heijnen CJ . Disturbed neuroendocrine- immune interactions in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb;85 (2):692-6. PMID: 10690878
  • Disturbance of hypothalamic function and evidence for persistent enteroviral infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Richardson, J.; Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 1995, 1, 2, 59-66.
  • Ur E et al. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci l992; 241: 317

  • Scott LV, Dinan TG. J Affect Disord 1998; 47: 49

  • Scott LV, Medbak S, Dinan TG. The low dose ACTH test in chronic fatigue syndrome and in health. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).1998; 48:733–7.
  • Crofford LJ, Young EA, Engleberg NC, et al. Basal circadian and pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome .Brain Behav Immun. 2004;18:314–25.33.
  • Buskila D, Press J. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in fibromyalgia-chronic fatigue.Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol.2001; 15:747–58
  • Bakheit AM et al. Acta Neurol Scand l993; 87: 234 "Arginine-vasopressin secretion was found to be erratic in patients with CFS and also total body water content was increased. The investigators suggested that these findings might indicate hypothalamic dysfunction in CFS, perhaps triggered by a persistent viral infection."
  • Bakheit AM et al. BMJ 1992; 304: 1010

  • "Association of Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Gene Polymorphisms with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome"
    Torpy, et al . Medical University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)
    Research findings presented to the 84th Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society, held on June 19-22, 2001, in San Francisco

  • "Dr Vesselinova has been measuring blood and salivary melatonin levels through the night and found them to be depressed in CFS patients. This is to be expected since we know that hormone output from the hypothalamus/pituitary/adrenal axis is abnormal, so the pineal, a similar gland, is likely to be affected."
    Dr. Sarah Myhill, Wales, UK.  Dr Vesselinova is a doctor at Lister Hospital in London, England.

  • Altered Interrelations among Plasma Stress Hormones during Treadmill Exercise in Females with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
    Habib et al. The Clinical Nuroendocrinology Branch of the NIMH in Bethesda, MD, USA
    This project found "significant abnormalities in the interaction between the sympathetic-adrenal limb and the HPA limb of the stress system in CFS". This suggests that the abnormal catecuolamine metabolism could very well contribute to the deficient stress response in ME/CFIDS patients
    Research findings presented to the 84th Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society, held on June 19-22, 2001, in San Francisco.

  • Thyroid abnormalities in CFS patients.  "in CFS patients the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is damaged and not working properly. Therefore one sees a normal or low TSH and depressed T4 in CFS."
    Research by Dr. Sarah Myhill, author of  book "Diagnosing and treating Chronic Fatigue Syndrome",  www.drmyhill.co.uk

  • Alterations in Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Rhythm in a Population-Based Sample of Cases With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Urs M. Nater et al. Psychosomatic Medicine April 2008 vol. 70 no. 3 298-305
  • An article in the Journal of Affective Disorders described a study in which cortisol levels were measured in 10 patients with CFS, 15 patients with major depression, and 25 healthy controls. Baseline circulating cortisol levels were highest in the depressed patients; lowest in the CFS patients; and intermediate between the two in the control group of 25 healthy individuals. Prolactin responses to the selective serotonin-releasing agent d-fenfluramine were lowest in the depressed patients, highest in the CFS patients, and intermediate between both in the healthy group. The authors concluded that depression is associated with hypercortisolemia and reduced central serotonin neurotransmission and suggest that CFS may be associated with hypocortisolemia and increased 5-HT function (Cleare et al. 1995).
  • Abnormal 5 H-T axis and abnormal production of cortisol. (Professor Peter Behan, The Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland.)

  • Jason LA, Sorenson M, Porter N, Belkairous N (2010), "An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Neuroscience & Medicine, 2011, 2, 14-27, PMID: 21892413

  • Dr. Straus, working with researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, found that CFS patients have decreased amounts of a hormone called cortisol, which is part of the natural "fight or flight" response. CFS patients also have decreased amounts of the hormone that instructs the brain to produce cortisol, which is called CRH (which is short for "corticotropin releasing hormone").

  • Torpy DJ, Bachmann AW, Grice JE, et al. 2001 Familial corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency due to a novel null mutation: association with fatigue and relative hypotension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3692-3700.

  • Wheatland R . Chronic ACTH autoantibodies are a significant pathological factor in the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic fatigue syndrome, anorexia nervosa and major depression. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(2):287-95. PMID: 15885924
  • Torpy DJ, Bachmann AW, Gartside M, et al. 2004 Association between chronic fatigue syndrome and the corticosteroid-binding globulin geen ALA SER224 polymorphism. Endocrine Res 30:417-429.

  • Scott LV, Dinan TG: Urinary free cortisol excretion in chronic fatigue syndrome, major depression and in healthy volunteers. J Affect Disord 1998, 47:49-54.

  • Narita M, Nishigami N, Narita N, et al. 2003 Association between serotonin transported gene polymorphism and chronic fatigue syndrome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 311:264-266.

  • I. J. Elenkov, R.L. Wilder, G. P. Chrousos and E. S. Vizi, "The Sympathetic Nerve—An Integrative Interface Between Two Supersystems: The Brain and the Immune System," Pharmacological Reviews, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2000, pp. 595-638.
  • B. V. Van Houdenhove, F. Van Den Eede and P. Luyten, "Does Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hypofunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Reflect a 'Crash in the Stress System?" Medical Hypothesis, Vol. 72, No. 6,2009, pp. 701-705. .
  • Straus, Stephen E. et al.; "Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome"; Journal of Clinical Immunology 13(1):30, 1993.

  • Straus, Stephen E. et al.; "Allergy and the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome"; Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 81:791, May 1988.

  • ME outbreaks suggesting HPA axis and brain abnormalities and role of viruses and other pathogens
    Viruses have been isolated from the muscles of ME patients during epidemics. Using PCR methods, 50% or more of patients had evidence of such infection.

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    • May PG, Donnan SP, Ashton JR, Ogilvie MM, Rolles CJ. Personality and medical perception in benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1980 Nov 22;2(8204):1122-4. PMID: 6107734
    • Church AJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1980 Aug 23;2(4):224. PMID: 7432298
    • Behan PO. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Practitioner. 1980 Aug;224(1346): 805-7. PMID: 7433399
    • Bishop J. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1980 Jun 14;1(12):585-6, 609. PMID: 7402153
    • Ramsay AM, Rundle A. Clinical and biochemical findings in ten patients with benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 1979 Dec;55(654):856-7. PMID: 548947 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2425703/?tool=pubmed
    • Pampiglione G, Harris R, Kennedy J. Electro-encephalographic investigations in myalgic encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 1978 Nov;54(637):752-4. PMID: 746023 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1606252/pdf/brmedj00135-0058a.pdf
    • Behan PO. Post-infectious encephalomyelitis: some aetiological mechanisms. Postgrad Med J. 1978 Nov;54(637):755-9. PMID: 34143 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1606252/pdf/brmedj00135-0058a.pdf
    • Wookey C. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br Med J. 1978 Jul 15;2(6131):202. PMID: 678851
    • Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br Med J. 1978 Jun 3;1(6125):1436-7. PMID: 647324 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1604957/pdf/brmedj00128-0006b.pdf
    • Ramsay AM, Dowsett EG, Dadswell JV, Lyle WH, Parish JG. Icelandic disease (benign myalgic encephalomyelitis or Royal Free disease) Br Med J. 1977 May 21;1(6072): 1350. PMID: 861618 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1607215/pdf/brmedj00463-0058b.pdf 
    • Parish JG. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Psychiatry. 1973 Jun;122(571):735. PMID: 4716076
    • Ramsay AM. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Psychiatry. 1973 May;122(570): 618-9. PMID: 4717041
    • Walther H. [Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1972 Apr 11;61(15):469-80. German. PMID: 5022278
    • Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1970 Jul 4;2(1):3. PMID: 5447847
    • Lyle WH. Encephalomyelitis resembling benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1970 May 23;1(7656):1118-9. PMID: 4191997
    • Innes SG. Encephalomyelitis resembling benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1970 May 9;1(7654):969-71. PMID: 4191935
    • Mourad S, Chidiac J. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis in Lebanon. J Med Liban. 1969;22(6):735-40. PMID: 5370523
    • Kendell RE. The psychiatric sequelae of benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Psychiatry. 1967 Aug;113(501):833-40. PMID: 6048369
    • Gsell O. [Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, epidemic pseudoneurasthenia]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1963 Feb 2;93:197-200. German. PMID: 13950994
    • Price JL. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1961 Apr 8;1(7180):737-8. PMID: 13737972
    • Pool JH, Walton JN, Brewis EG, Uldall PR, Wright AE, Gardner PS. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis in Newcastle upon Tyne. Lancet. 1961 Apr 8;1(7180):733-7. PMID: 13737057
    • Klajman A, Pinkhas B, Rannon L. [An outbreak of an epidemic of benign myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Harefuah. 1960 May 15;58:314-5. Hebrew. PMID: 14409571
    • Bornstein B, Bechar M, Lass H. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. (Report of five cases). Psychiatr Neurol (Basel). 1960 Mar;139:132-40. PMID: 13802904
    • Daikos GK, Garzonis S, Paleologue A, Bousvaros GA, Papadoyannakis N. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis: an outbreak in a nurses' school in Athens. Lancet. 1959 Apr 4;1(7075):693-6. PMID: 13642848  
    • Acheson ED. The clinical syndrome variously called benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, Iceland disease and epidemic neuromyasthenia. Am J Med. 1959 Apr;26(4):569-95. PMID: 13637100 http://www.meresearch.org.uk/information/keypubs/Acheson_AmJMed.pdf
    • Bhatia BB, Chandra S, Bhushan C. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. J Indiana State Med Assoc. 1958 Oct;31(8):327-8. PMID: 13611265
    • Gsell O. [Encephalitis myalgica epidemica, a poliomyelitis-like disease; epidemic neuromyasthenia, benign myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1958 May 17;88(20):488-91. German. PMID: 13568694
    • Greene IM. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis; syndrome mimicking anterior poliomyelitis. J Fla Med Assoc. 1958 Apr;44(10):1105-6. PMID: 13525606
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    • Deisher JB. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis (Iceland disease) in Alaska. Northwest Med. 1957 Dec;56(12):1451-6. PMID: 13484090
    • [Benign epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Recenti Prog Med. 1957 Nov;23(5): 525-31. Italian. PMID: 13518620 
    • EPIDEMIC myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br Med J. 1957 Oct 19;2(5050):927-8. PMID: 13472011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1962482/pdf/brmedj03125-0047.pdf
    • Acheson ED. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1957 Apr 20;272(6973):834-5. PMID: 13417614
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    • Lindan R. Benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. Can Med Assoc J. 1956 Oct 1;75(7): 596-7. PMID: 20325349 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1824640/pdf/canmedaj00742-0051.pdf
    • Blattner RJ. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis (Akureyri disease, Iceland disease). J Pediatr. 1956 Oct;49(4):504-6. PMID: 13358047 
    • A new Clinical Entity ? Lancet 1956
    • Outbreak at the Royal Free. E.D Acheson. The Lancet, Volume 266, Issue 6886, Pages 394 - 395, 20 August 1955.

    Years of Epidemics
    1917 Van Economo reports an illness involving brain and neurological inflammation and great fatigue and some deaths. See paper 'New Clinical Entity' published in the Lancet in 1956.
    1918 - 1924, several outbreaks of an illness involving brain and neurological inflammation and fatigue reported throughout Europe. See paper 'New Clinical Entity' published in the Lancet in 1956.
    1924 England and Wales 5,039 cases of encephalitis lethargica. See paper 'New Clinical Entity' published in the Lancet in 1956.
    1934 Los Angeles County Hospital. Called 'Atypical Poliomyelitis'
    1936 Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin - St. Agnes Convent - Encephalitis
    1937 Erstfeld, Switzerland - Abortive Poliomyelitis
    1937 St. Gallen, Switzerland - Frohburg Hospital – Abortive Poliomyelitis
    1939 Middlesex, England - Harefield Sanatorium
    1939 Degersheim, Switzerland - Abortive Poliomyelitis
    1945 Pennsylvania. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania - epidemic Pleurodynia
    1946 Iceland disease resembling Poliomyelitis with the character of Akureyri disease
    1948 Iceland, North Coast towns - epidemic simulating Poliomyelitis
    1949 Adelaide, South Australia - a disease resembling Poliomyelitis
    1949 Cambridgeshire, England - aberrant poliomyelitis. Involvement of other Enteroviruses suspected.
    1950 Louisville, Kentucky -- St. Joseph 's Infirmary - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1950 Upper State New York -- outbreak resembling the Iceland disease, simulating " acute Anterior Poliomyelitis
    1952 London, England - Middlesex Hospital Nurses ' Home - Encephalomyelitis associated with Poliomyelitis virus
    1952 Copenhagen, Denmark - epidemic Myositis
    1952 Lakeland, Florida - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1953 Coventry and District, England - an illness resembling Poliomyelitis observed in nurses
    1953 Rockville, Maryland - Chestnut Lodge Hospital - Poliomyelitis-like epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1953 Jutland, Denmark - epidemic Encephalitis with vertigo
    1954 Seward, Alaska - benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (Iceland Disease)
    1954 Berlin, Germany - British army - further outbreak of a disease resembling Poliomyelitis
    1954 Liverpool, England - outbreak among medical and nursing staff in a local hospital
    1955 Dalston, Cumbria, England – epidemic and sporadic outbreak of an unusual disease
    1955 London, England - Royal Free Hospital - outbreak in staff and patients of Benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1955 Hampstead, London
    1955 Perth, Australia - virus epidemic in waves
    1955 Gilfac Goch, Wales - outbreak of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1955 Durban City, South Africa - Addington Hospital - outbreak among nurses of Durban Mystery Disease
    1955 Segbwema, Sierra Leone - outbreak of Encephalomyelitis
    1955 Patreksfjorour and Porshofn, Iceland - unusual response to polio vaccine
    1955 Northwest London, England - nurses ' residential home - acute Infective Encephalomyelitis simulating poliomyelitis
    1956 Ridgefield, Connecticut - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1956 Punta Gorda Florida - outbreak of epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1956 Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, England - Lymphocytic Meningoencephalitis with myalgia and rash
    1956 Pittsfield and Williamstown, Massachusetts - benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1956 Coventry, England - epidemic malaise, benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1957 Brighton, South Australia - Cocksakie Echo virus Meningitis, epidemic Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1958 Athens, Greece - nurses ' school - outbreak of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis with periostitis and arthopathy noted.
    1958 Southwest London, England - reports of sporadic cases of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1959 Newcastle Upon Tyne, England - outbreak of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1961 Basel, Switzerland - sporadic cases of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1961 New York State - outbreak of epidemic Neuromyasthenia in a convent
    1964 Northwest London, England - epidemic malaise, epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1964 Franklin, Kentucky - outbreak of Neuromyasthenia in a factory
    1967 Edinburgh, Scotland - sporadic cases resembling benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1968 " Fraidek, Lebanon - benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1969 Brooklyn, New York - State University of New York Downstate Medical Center - epidemic Neuromyasthenia, unidentified symptom complex
    1970 Lackland Air Force Base, Texas - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1970 London, England - Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children - outbreak of Neuromyasthenia among nurses
    1975 Sacramento, California - Mercy San Juan Hospital - Infectious Venulitis, epidemic " Phelobodynia
    1976 Southwest Ireland - epidemic Neuromyasthenia, benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1977 Dallas – Fort Worth, Texas - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
    1979 Southampton, England - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1980 West Kilbridge, Ayrshire, Scotland - epidemic Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1980 San Francisco, California – epidemic persistent flu-like illness
    1981 Stirlingshire, Scotland - sporadic Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1982 West Otago, Dunedin and Hamilton, New Zealand - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
    1983 Los Angeles, California - initial cases of an unknown, chronic symptom complex involving profound "fatigue"
    1984 Lake Tahoe Area of California/Nevada - start of a yearlong epidemic involving " over 160 cases of chronic illness eventually characterized as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Source: Paradigm Change web site

 

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